The “Turkish Coffee”, which emerged as a result of the methods applied during the roasting, grinding, preparation and serving of the coffee bean as a beverage, has its aroma, grounds, foam, presentation, unique function on special days and meetings officers. and its place in social life from the 16th century to the present day. achieved so far. As in the past, coffee is served in official and private ceremonies, and the culture and tradition continue in private spaces, cafes and coffee shops. The Culture and Tradition of Turkish Coffee was registered on behalf of our country in the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity of UNESCO on December 5, 2013.
Coffee in Sarai
Starting in the second half of the 17th century, coffee began to be purchased from the budget of the palace kitchen. It is understood that coffee is one of the most common and daily consumed basic beverages from the documents containing the expenses of food purchases made to the palace, the detailed information on the expenses of coffee consumption and the articles related to coffee.
In the palace there were coffee machines that prepared the coffees of the high owners of the palace, especially the Sultan, Valide Sultan and other members of the dynasty, and took care of the coffee sets. Kahvecibaşı was the person who prepared the coffee that the sultan drank and was responsible for the jeweled coffee sets that were given to the sultan from the treasury. Coffeepot duty was established among special chamber servants during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. The head of the day laborers who served coffee in the harem was called Kahveci Usta.
Coffee had already taken its unshakable place in the palace as a gift at the beginning of the 17th century. Statesmen and ambassadors from various countries who visited the palace, waited in the supply room with the sultan, were greeted by offering coffee. The places where these delicacies were made were the short-stay reception rooms located inside the Bab’üs-Salam and Bab-üs Saade gates. Especially in the rooms to the right and left of the Bab-üs Saade, coffee was served to dignitary statesmen such as the grand vizier, viziers and treasurers who came to meet with the sultan. In these delicacies, the presentation of the coffee was accompanied by sweet sorbet and incense. But the main thing was the coffee. The sorbet, or sweet, was accompanied by coffee in its very nature. It was also customary to offer rose water and burn incense along with coffee.
The existing coffee stoves in the palace had a stove for cooking coffee and wooden cabinets with coffee pots and coffee sets. It was also arranged in such a way as to allow the coffee maker and service staff to sit down and rest. It is known that there are coffee shops in Baltacılar Ward, Supply Room, Bagdat Mansion, Mecidiye Mansion, Physician Head room, Tile Treasury, Kubbealtı, Foreign Treasure, kitchen and doorman Ward and Harem.
Coffee used to go through the stages of roasting, cooling, grinding, and cooking until it was ready to drink in the cup. The tools used during these processes have developed their own forms and stylistic characteristics.
To roast the coffee beans, iron pans, ladles and coffee cupboards were used, the smell and taste of which were largely formed. It would be preferable to roast enough coffee beans to be consumed. Roasted coffee beans were ground in wooden, marble, or bronze mortars or pestles or coffee grinders, then immediately cooled by aeration in wooden or ceramic containers, called sogudan. Coffee drinkers preferred the taste of coffee ground in the mortar.
Freshly ground coffee was stored in wooden, copper, brass, tombak or ceramic boxes or in leather and cloth bags so that it would not be affected by heat and humidity and would preserve its aroma. The coffee, which was previously cooked in copper pots or jars and later in copper or brass pots, was served in cups.
During the coffee offering, coffee cloths with a diameter of approximately 1 meter were used, and made with woolen fabrics such as satin, velvet or woolen fabrics called lahuraki. In addition to the seals, gold or silver threads, precious and semi-precious stones, especially fine ones, were used to embroider the covers of the palace cafes. At coffee presentation ceremonies in palaces and mansions, these covers were worn hung from the front of the tray on which the cups were carried, or folded in half and tossed onto the coffee tray by the person holding the tray. coffee. .
The coffee style is a pedestal mechanism, in the form of a basin, which can be carried by hand by combining the chains attached to three points into a ring, in which an ash fire is placed in the hole in the middle, and a coffee.